- Steps in Making Ethical Decisions
- Gather the relevant factual info
- Analyze the facts to determine the most appropriate moral values
- Make an ethical judgement based on the right or wrong of the activity or policy
Currency: When was the article, book, video, or Internet source written or produced. Does your research topic require current sources of information or historical primary sources?
Relevance: Does the source you have located address your specific topic or research question? Is the coverage of the material too general to be of use to you?
Authority: To determine the authority of the source, ask yourself who is the author of the article--is the individual a reporter, another student, an educator, a researcher, a scholar, a subject specialist? Look for information about the author or explore the authority of the source with your professor or a librarian.
Accuracy: Compare the article or book to other sources that you have located on your topic. Does the information seem credible? How does it compare to other readings on your subject? Who is taking responsibility for the information provided? Has the information been published by a credible source?
Purpose: Is the material written from a biased point of view? Has the document been written to persuade or to inform?
Evaluating information - applying the CRAAP test. (2004). Meriam Library, California State
University. Retrieved from http://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf.
Place, E., Kendall, M., Hiom, D., Booth, H., Ayres, P., Manuel, A., Smith, P. (2008). Internet
detective: Wise up to the web." Intute Virtual Training Suite. Retrieved from
Otto, B. (2013, Oct 04). Nike, new balance showdown highlights thorny issues in trans-pacific trade talks; nike-new balance rift highlights thorny, lingering issues. Wall Street Journal (Online). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1439403107?accountid=13909
Nguyen, A. T. (2013, Oct 28). Vietnam airlines, GE sign $1.7 billion engine deal; airline seeks to raise profile with fleet of 40 boeing 787 dreamliners. Wall Street Journal (Online). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1445876619?accountid=13909
Banjo, S., & Syed, Z. A. (2013, Oct 10). Bangladeshi garment exports surge despite accidents; country's competitive pricing continues to lure retailers. Wall Street Journal (Online). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1440993286?accountid=13909
Keywords: search with words that identify your specific topic; adapt your searches as needed
possible keywords: globalization stakeholders
Databases for Periodicals, Newspapers, SWOTs, Analyst Reports
Business Subject Guide - Listing of databases for business and company research
Discovery search tool on the business "research by subject" page searches multiple business databases
Journal / Magazine Databases
Business Source Complete provides Datamonitor SWOT reports for companies in addition to news articles and in-depth articles from academic journals and the popular press
sample magazine article from Business Source Complete database:
Brown, G. (2011). Corporate social responsibility: What is it good for? Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 45(5), 34-36.
ABI-INFORM Complete provides access to articles, company, market and industry reports
sample newspaper and magazine articles from ABI-INFORM and Business Source Complete:
Cowell, A. (2000, Dec 18). Advocates gain ground in a globalized era
. New York Times
Mont, J. (2013). Investors pushing for human rights committees. Compliance Week, 10 (111), 34-35. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1369798422?accountid=13909.
We're in business!: From Better Factories to Better Work. (2008). World of Work, (62), 10-13.
sample scholarly journal articles from ABI-INFORM and Business Source Complete:
Kanter, R. (2011). How Great Companies Think Differently. Harvard Business Review, 89(11), 66-78.
Lamin, A., & Zaheer, S. (2012). Wall street vs. main street: Firm strategies for defending legitimacy and
their impact on different stakeholders. Organization Science, 23 (1), 47-66.
Lemke, F., & Petersen, H. L. (2013). Teaching reputational risk management in the supply chain. Supply
Chain Management, 18 (4), 413-429. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SCM-06-2012-0222.
Nwagbara, U., & Reid, P. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Management Trends: Changing Times and Changing Strategies. Economic Insights - Trends & Challenges, 65(2), 12-19.
Osland, J. S. (2003). Broadening the debate the pros and cons of globalization. Journal of Management Inquiry, 12(2), 137. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203316120?accountid=13909
Utting, K. (2009). Assessing the Impact of Fair Trade Coffee: Towards an Integrative Framework. Journal Of Business Ethics, 86127-149. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9761-9.
Wall Street Journal database with access to full text of newspaper
New York Times database with access to full text of newspaper
Analyst Reports providing information for stockholders / investors
Morningstar company / stock analysis; search for company names
Valueline one page analysis on selected companies
Business Source Complete indepth company reports are often available
Business Insights Essentials company reports may be available
Hoovers Company Profiles search this database using a company name
- Citing Sources - APA Style
References / Citations – The format required at SMC for business writing is APA Style. You may use the following methods to create your Reference List:
A. Use the APA citations provided by the library databases you search
Example article citations:
Alterman, E. (2011). Steve Jobs: An American 'disgrace'. Nation, 293 (22), 9.
Barboza, D. (2010, June 7). Foxconn increases size of raise in Chinese factories. New York Times, 1.
Bush, M. (2010). Foxconn crisis proves need for global PR. Advertising Age, 81(40), 6.
Example of citation format for a web document:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://web address.
Henn, S. (2012, March 30). Apple Foxconn to improve factory conditions. Retrieved from www.npr.org.
Example of a company report from Valueline:
Name of company. (year, month). Valueline Investment Survey: Ratings and Reports, Issue Number. Retrieved from http://www.valueline.com.
B. Refer to the APA manual or the APA Online Guide from Purdue University. See Electronic citations
The guide from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) presents examples using the most recent edition (6th) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009).
C. In-text/parathentical Citations
Example of in-text documentation - According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
Example of in-text documentation - It is not surprising to learn that "students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Two or More Authors
Example of in-text paraphrase: According to Van Note Chism and Weerakoon (2012), graduate students are challenged with developing in-text and bibliographic citations in their writing.
Bibliographic citation: Van Note Chism, N., & Weerakoon, S. (2012). APA, Meet Google: Graduate students' approaches to learning citation style. Journal of the scholarship of teaching and learning, 12 (2), 27-38.
If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
In-text citation example for source with no author:
Compliance Officers spend a significant amount of time addressing ethical concerns including establishing standards for ethical business conduct and addressing whistleblower protection guidelines and antibribery regulations ("Are CCOs addressing," 2013).
Bibliographic citation for source with no author:
Are CCOs addressing the right risks? (2013). Compliance Week, 10-11.
D. RefWorks is a research tool that allows you to import references from online databases, organize your references into folders, and then create bibliographies. You can select from a variety of style forms (eg APA, MLA, etc.). RefWorks is free to the SMC community.