- Steps in Making Ethical Decisions
- Gather the relevant factual info
- Analyze the facts to determine the most appropriate moral values
- Make an ethical judgement based on the right or wrong of the activity or policy
Currency: When was the article, book, video, or Internet source written or produced. Does your research topic require current sources of information or historical primary sources?
Relevance: Does the source you have located address your specific topic or research question? Is the coverage of the material too general to be of use to you?
Authority: To determine the authority of the source, ask yourself who is the author of the article--is the individual a reporter, another student, an educator, a researcher, a scholar, a subject specialist? Look for information about the author or explore the authority of the source with your professor or a librarian.
Accuracy: Compare the article or book to other sources that you have located on your topic. Does the information seem credible? How does it compare to other readings on your subject? Who is taking responsibility for the information provided? Has the information been published by a credible source?
Purpose: Is the material written from a biased point of view? Has the document been written to persuade or to inform?
Evaluating information - applying the CRAAP test. (2004). Meriam Library, California State
University. Retrieved from http://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf.
Place, E., Kendall, M., Hiom, D., Booth, H., Ayres, P., Manuel, A., Smith, P. (2008). Internet
detective: Wise up to the web." Intute Virtual Training Suite. Retrieved from
Databases for Periodicals, Newspapers, SWOTs, Analyst Reports
Business Subject Guide - Listing of databases for business and company research
Discovery search tool on the business "research by subject" page searches multiple business databases
Journal / Magazine Databases
Business Source Complete provides Datamonitor SWOT reports for companies in addition to news articles and in-depth articles from academic journals and the popular press
ABI-INFORM Complete provides access to articles, company, market and industry reports
Wall Street Journal database with access to full text of newspaper
New York Times database with access to full text of newspaper
Proquest Newspapers database with access to full text of many newspapers including local Burlington Free Press
- Citing Sources - APA Style
References / Citations – The format required at SMC for business writing is APA Style. You may use the following methods to create your Reference List:
A. Use the APA citations provided by the library databases you search
Example article citations:
Alterman, E. (2011). Steve Jobs: An American 'disgrace'. Nation, 293 (22), 9.
Barboza, D. (2010, June 7). Foxconn increases size of raise in Chinese factories. New York Times, 1.
Bush, M. (2010). Foxconn crisis proves need for global PR. Advertising Age, 81(40), 6.
Example of citation format for a web document:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://web address.
Henn, S. (2012, March 30). Apple Foxconn to improve factory conditions. Retrieved from www.npr.org.
Example of a company report from Valueline:
Name of company. (year, month). Valueline Investment Survey: Ratings and Reports, Issue Number. Retrieved from http://www.valueline.com.
B. Refer to the APA manual or the APA Online Guide from Purdue University. See Electronic citations
The guide from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) presents examples using the most recent edition (6th) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009).
C. In-text/parathentical Citations
Example of in-text documentation - According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
Example of in-text documentation - It is not surprising to learn that "students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Two or More Authors
Example of in-text paraphrase: According to Van Note Chism and Weerakoon (2012), graduate students are challenged with developing in-text and bibliographic citations in their writing.
Bibliographic citation: Van Note Chism, N., & Weerakoon, S. (2012). APA, Meet Google: Graduate students' approaches to learning citation style. Journal of the scholarship of teaching and learning, 12 (2), 27-38.
If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
In-text citation example for source with no author:
Compliance Officers spend a significant amount of time addressing ethical concerns including establishing standards for ethical business conduct and addressing whistleblower protection guidelines and antibribery regulations ("Are CCOs addressing," 2013).
Bibliographic citation for source with no author:
Are CCOs addressing the right risks? (2013). Compliance Week, 10-11.
D. RefWorks is a research tool that allows you to import references from online databases, organize your references into folders, and then create bibliographies. You can select from a variety of style forms (eg APA, MLA, etc.). RefWorks is free to the SMC community.